Ultrasound for pregnancy program is an examination procedure carried out to see the condition of the reproductive organs in patients who are undergoing a pregnancy program. Ultrasound for pregnancy programs generally includes 2 types of examinations, namely transvaginal ultrasound and pelvic ultrasound.
Ultrasound (USG) is an imaging procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the inside of a patient's body. Through ultrasound technology, doctors can detect disorders that may occur in organs, structures, or body tissues without having to make an incision.
Ultrasound is performed on women who are undergoing a pregnancy program to detect when ovulation occurs. Ovulation is the release of an egg from the ovary. The type of ultrasound performed during pregnancy is a pelvic ultrasound or transvaginal ultrasound. In addition to detecting ovulation, ultrasound pregnancy programs also have several benefits, including:
- Checking the condition of organs or tissues that are part of the female reproductive system, such as the uterus, vagina, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
- Detect abnormalities that may occur in the uterus, such as cysts or fibroids.
- Monitor the effectiveness of fertility-enhancing drugs or vitamins taken by patients during pregnancy.
Ultrasound Indications Pregnant Program
Ultrasound of pregnant programs is carried out by every woman who is undergoing a pregnancy program. Most women generally undergo a program to get pregnant after 1 year of not having children, even though they have been sexually active and without contraception. Ultrasound during pregnancy is used to evaluate several factors related to the condition of the patient's reproductive system, including:
- Position and presence of reproductive organs. One of the most basic screening factors because some women are born without ovaries or uterus.
- Ovarian condition. Examination of the size and shape of the ovaries or ovaries.
- Number of antral follicles. Antral follicles are glandular sacs containing immature eggs. If the number of antral follicles is very low, it can indicate a low egg reserve. However, if the number of antral follicles is very high, then it can indicate the possibility of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome).
- uterine condition. Ultrasound is used to identify the size, shape, and position of the uterus, as well as possible abnormalities in the uterus.
- The thickness of the endometrium (mucous membrane of the uterus). The endometrium will get thicker when the patient experiences a menstrual cycle. Ultrasound is used to detect if the thickness of the endometrium is abnormal.
- Condition of the fallopian tubes. Ultrasound is used to detect abnormalities that may occur in the fallopian tubes or fallopian tubes, such as swelling.
In addition, ultrasound for pregnant programs is also carried out to detect several conditions that cause delays in the pregnancy process, such as:
- Ovarian cyst.
- Pelvic inflammatory disease that causes injury or swelling of the fallopian tubes.
- Infertility is characterized by the inability of the ovaries to produce eggs, the eggs do not move to the uterus, or the fertilized egg does not attach to the uterine wall.
Before Ultrasound Pregnant Program
Before undergoing an ultrasound program to get pregnant, the patient will undergo a consultation with a doctor. At this stage, the doctor will ask questions regarding the menstrual cycle, medications being taken, lifestyle, or other complaints that the patient may experience. Next, the doctor may perform a physical examination to confirm the condition of the patient's body.
Patients generally do not require special preparation before undergoing an ultrasound program to get pregnant. However, there are several things that patients need to do before undergoing an ultrasound to get pregnant, including:
- Consume about 4 glasses of water at least 1 hour before undergoing a pelvic ultrasound examination. Avoid urinating until the inspection process is complete. A full bladder allows organs to be seen more clearly on a monitor screen.
- Conversely, for patients who will undergo a transvaginal ultrasound, the doctor will recommend emptying the bladder before undergoing the ultrasound examination.
- If the patient is menstruating, transvaginal ultrasound can still be performed. The patient will be asked to remove the current dressing.
- Remove all objects or jewelry that is being worn before undergoing an ultrasound.
- Take off part or all of the clothes and change into hospital clothes.
Fasting or use of sedatives is usually not required in a pelvic ultrasound, unless the ultrasound is part of a procedure that requires anesthesia.
Ultrasound Procedure for Pregnant Program
Patients who are undergoing ultrasound during pregnancy will generally undergo two types of ultrasound examinations, namely pelvic ultrasound and transvaginal ultrasound. Transvaginal ultrasound is the most common type of ultrasound performed on patients who are pregnant. The following are the steps for transvaginal ultrasound, namely:
- The patient will be placed on the examination table with the legs slightly raised and supported by a support.
- The doctor will coat the ultrasound device (transducer) shaped like a stick with a condom and gel, then insert the device into the vagina. The patient will feel a little pressure and discomfort when transducer
- When transducer is in the vagina, sound waves will reflect and send a picture of the condition of the patient's pelvic organs to the monitor screen.
- The doctor will move transducer to the entire area around the pelvis using the image on the monitor screen as a guide to detect and diagnose abnormalities that the patient may have.
- After finishing examining the patient, the doctor will withdraw transducer, remove the condom attached to the device, and clean the device.
For some conditions, the doctor will perform a special transvaginal ultrasound, namely: saline infusion sonography (SISTER). The SIS procedure is performed using sterile saline water that is inserted into the uterus through a catheter prior to the ultrasound procedure to help identify possible abnormalities in the uterus. This sterile salt water serves to dilate the uterus and give a more detailed picture of the condition of the inside of the uterus.
In addition to a transvaginal ultrasound, the doctor will also perform a pelvic ultrasound to detect abnormalities in the uterus. Here are some steps for a pelvic ultrasound, including:
- The patient will be placed on the examination table in a supine position.
- The doctor will apply the gel to the pelvic area (lower abdomen). The patient may feel cold when the gel is applied.
- Transducer will be placed over the pelvis that has been smeared with gel and moved back and forth, until it is able to get the image the doctor wants.
- After the doctor finishes the examination, the doctor will clean the gel from the patient's pelvis and the patient is allowed to urinate
Transvaginal ultrasound and pelvic ultrasound last about 15-30 minutes or more. In addition, there are several types of special ultrasound examinations that doctors can perform while the patient is undergoing a pregnancy program, including:
- Antral follicle count ultrasound. Types of ultrasound examination performed using transducer transvaginal to help determine egg reserve and help diagnose PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome).
- 3D ultrasound. This type of ultrasound is able to detect abnormalities in the uterus and fallopian tubes that are not visible with 2-dimensional ultrasound.
- Hysterosalpingo-contrast sonography (HyCoSy). This type of ultrasound is almost similar to SIS, but the saline solution used is mixed with air bubbles to detect the presence or absence of blockages in the fallopian tubes.
After Ultrasound Pregnant Program
Patients are allowed to go home and do not need to be hospitalized after undergoing an ultrasound program for pregnancy. Ultrasound results are usually received by the patient shortly after the patient has finished undergoing the ultrasound. The doctor will schedule another meeting with the patient to interpret and explain to the patient the ultrasound results.
Risks of Ultrasound Pregnant Program
Ultrasound during pregnancy, both transvaginal ultrasound and pelvic ultrasound, is a safe examination procedure to do and does not pose any risks or side effects. This is because ultrasound does not use radiation exposure, such as CT scans or X-rays. A mild side effect that may appear is an allergic reaction to the gel or latex material used during the ultrasound procedure. However, this condition is rare.