Getting to know the Sputnik Vaccine for COVID-19

There's been a lot of talk about the Sputnik vaccine lately. The Sputnik V vaccine or also known as Gam-COVID-Vac is a COVID-19 vaccine produced by the Gamaleya Research Institute, Russia.

Until now, there has been no official confirmation or notification from the government regarding the use of the Sputnik vaccine in Indonesia. However, it is possible that this vaccine will be used by the government in the COVID-19 vaccination program.

Sputnik Vaccine Things

Here are a few things about the Sputnik vaccine you should know:

1. Basic ingredients

The Sputnik vaccine uses adenovirus 26 and adenovirus 5, which belong to the group of viruses that cause respiratory infections, as protein vectors for the Corona virus.

Vector itself is a virus that is modified so that it can enter the cells of the human body but cannot reproduce. Adenovirus 26 and adenovirus 5 vectors are used to transport pieces of the Corona virus' genetic material to the body of the vaccine recipient.

2. How it works

After the Sputnik vaccine is injected, the vector containing pieces of the Corona virus gene will enter the body's cells. After that, the body's cells can read the piece of the gene and produce the Corona virus protein. However, this protein will not cause infection.

With this protein, the body will actually realize that there is a foreign object and start producing antibodies to fight it. Thus, if in the future the body is infected with a live Corona virus, the immune system already has antibodies that are able to recognize and fight it, so that COVID-19 disease can be prevented.

3. Clinical trial

The Sputnik vaccine has passed a phase III clinical trial involving 40,000 people in Russia. Participants in the Sputnik vaccine clinical trial consisted of men and women with an age range of 18 years to 60 years and over.

In addition, about 24% of vaccine recipients are people who have co-morbidities, including diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and ischemic heart disease.

Participants in the Sputnik vaccine clinical trial are people who have never been infected with the Corona virus, have no close contact with COVID-19 patients, do not have allergies to the contents of this vaccine, and are not currently experiencing respiratory infections.

Sputnik vaccine is given in two doses, each dose containing 0.5 ml. The first dose was administered using an adenovirus vector 26 (Ad26), then within a span of 21 days, the second dose of Sputnik vaccine was administered using adenovirus 5 (Ad5).

4. Clinical trial results

Based on the clinical trials that have been carried out, the Sputnik vaccine shows a strong protective effect in all age groups.

The results of clinical trials also show that the immune system will produce antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19 after 18 days from the first dose.

However, because the type of vector at each injected dose is different, the immune response from the administration of Sputnik vaccine will be stronger and longer lasting after the second injection of the vaccine.

The efficacy or level of effectiveness of the Sputnik vaccine to prevent COVID-19 reaches 91.6%. Although approximately 8.4% of clinical trial participants were infected with SARS-CoV-2, none developed moderate or severe symptoms and required hospitalization.

5. Side effects

During clinical trials, the common side effects experienced by Sputnik vaccine recipients were pain at the injection site, flu, fever, headache, and fatigue.

Although there are some reports of fatal side effects, they occur in people who do have severe comorbidities, so these side effects cannot be directly attributed to the Sputnik vaccine.

The Sputnik vaccine and other COVID-19 vaccines are expected to be a solution to stop this pandemic. However, the provision of vaccines must still be accompanied by the implementation of health protocols to prevent transmission of the Corona virus.

If you still have questions regarding the Sputnik vaccine or other vaccines that have been confirmed to be used in Indonesia, you can ask your doctor on the ALODOKTER application.