Everolimus - Benefits, dosage and side effects

Everolimus is a drug to prevent rejection reactions body after organ transplant. on the other hand, This drug is also used to treat various types of cancer, including breast cancer, kidney cancer, advanced neuroendocrine tumors, or subependymal giant cell astrocytoma.

Everolimus works by inhibiting mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), which is an enzyme that plays an important role in controlling cell growth and development. Therefore, this drug can work as an immunosuppressant to prevent rejection reactions after organ transplantation and inhibit the development of cancer cells.

As a drug to prevent post-transplant organ rejection reactions, everolimus can be combined with other immunosuppressant drugs, such as ciclosporin or tacrolimus.

everolimus trademark:Affinitor, Certican

What is Everolimus

groupPrescription drugs
CategoryImmunosuppressant drugs
BenefitPreventing body rejection reactions after organ transplantation and treating cancer
Used byAdults and children
Everolimus for pregnant and lactating womenCategory D:There is positive evidence of risks to the human fetus, but the benefits may outweigh the risks, for example in dealing with life-threatening situations.

It is not known whether everolimus can be absorbed into breast milk or not. If you are breastfeeding, do not use this medicine without consulting your doctor first.

Drug formTablet

Warning Before Taking Everolimus

Everolimus should only be taken according to a doctor's prescription. Here are some things you need to pay attention to before taking everolimus:

  • Do not use everolimus if you are allergic to this medicine. Tell your doctor if you are allergic to sirolimus or temsirolimus.
  • Tell your doctor if you have diabetes, high cholesterol, or an infectious disease.
  • Tell your doctor if you have or are currently suffering from lactose intolerance, liver disease, kidney disease, or have had a heart transplant.
  • Avoid close contact with people with infectious diseases that are easily contagious, such as the flu or measles, during treatment with everolimus, because this drug can weaken the immune system.
  • Tell your doctor if you plan to get vaccinated while on treatment with everolimus. This medicine may affect the effectiveness of the vaccine.
  • As much as possible, limit or avoid exposure to direct sunlight and always use sunscreen when outdoor activities, because everolimus can increase the risk of skin cancer.
  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy. Use effective contraception to prevent pregnancy while on treatment with everolimus.
  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products.
  • Tell your doctor that you are taking everolimus if you plan to have certain medical procedures, such as surgery or dental surgery.
  • See your doctor right away if you experience an allergic drug reaction, serious side effect, or overdose after taking everolimus.

Dosage and Instructions for Use Everolimus

The doctor will determine the dose of everolimus based on the patient's condition, age, and body response to the drug. Here are the doses of everolimus based on its intended use:

Purpose:Prevents body rejection reactions after kidney or heart transplant

  • Mature: Initial dose 0.75 mg, 2 times a day. Treatment is given immediately after transplantation.

Purpose: Preventing body rejection reactions after liver transplant

  • Mature: Initial dose 1 mg, 2 times daily for 12 months. Treatment is given 30 days after transplantation.

Purpose: Treating kidney cancer, breast cancer, advanced neuroendocrine tumors, or renal angiomyolipoma associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)

  • Mature: 10 mg, 1 time a day.

Purpose: Treat subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) is related to tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)

  • Mature: 4.5 mg/m2, once daily.
  • kids age 1 year: 4.5 mg/m2, once daily.

Purpose: Treating partial onset seizures associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)

  • Mature: 5 mg/m2, once a day.
  • kids age 2 years: 5 mg/m2, once a day.

How to Take Everolimus Correctly

Take everolimus as recommended by your doctor and read the instructions for use on the medicine package before taking the medicine. Do not change the dose without consulting your doctor first.

Take everolimus regularly at the same time every day. Everolimus can be taken before or after meals. Swallow the medicine whole with the help of a glass of water. Do not chew or crush it.

If you have difficulty swallowing the tablet, you can mix the everolimus dispersible tablet in a glass of water before taking it.

If you forget to take everolimus, take it immediately if the break with the next consumption schedule is not too close. If it is close, ignore it and do not double the dose.

Make sure to do the control according to the schedule given by the doctor. While on treatment with everolimus, you may be asked to have your blood pressure checked, complete blood count, or blood clotting factor indicators, such as INR, on a regular basis.

Avoid eating or drinking juicegrapefruitwhile taking everolimus, because it can increase the risk of side effects.

Store everolimus at room temperature and place in a closed container. Keep this medicine away from direct sunlight and keep this medicine out of reach of children.

Interactions of Everolimus with Other Drugs

There are several drug interaction effects that can occur when everolimus is used with certain drugs, namely:

  • Decreased vaccine effectiveness or increased risk of infection when used with the BCG vaccine, influenza vaccine, or measles vaccine
  • Increased risk of angioedema if used together ACE inhibitor, such as ramipril
  • Increased risk of developing rhabdomyolysis syndrome in transplant patients with simvastatin, lovastatin, or fibrates
  • Increased blood levels of everolimus when used with ketoconazole, erythromycin, ritonavir, nefazodone, imatinib, verapamil, diltiazem, or dronedarone
  • Decreased effectiveness of everolimus when used with rifampicin, dexamethasone, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, efavirenz, or nevirapine
  • Increased risk of side effects when used with pimoxide, erfenadine, astemizole, cisapride, quinidine, or ergot alkaloids drugs
  • Elevated blood levels of midazolam or octreotide
  • Increased risk of renal impairment, hemolytic uremic syndrome, or thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) when used with ciclosporin or tacrolimus
  • Increased risk of serious infection if used with thymoglobulin

Everolimus Side Effects and Dangers

Some of the common side effects after taking everolimus are:

  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Stomach ache
  • Diarrhea or constipation
  • Headache or dizziness
  • Dry mouth or thrush

Check with your doctor if the side effects above do not subside. Immediately see a doctor if there is an allergic reaction to the drug which is characterized by the appearance of an itchy and swollen rash, swollen eyes and lips, or difficulty breathing.

In addition, you should also see a doctor immediately if you experience more serious side effects, such as:

  • Lung disease, which can be characterized by symptoms such as coughing, shortness of breath or difficulty breathing, wheezing, or chest pain
  • Infectious disease, which can be characterized by symptoms such as fever, chills, or a rash appears on the skin
  • Swelling of the hands, ankles, or feet
  • Wounds are hard to heal
  • Decreased sexual desire in men
  • Easy bruising or unusual bleeding