Typhoid vaccine is a vaccine used to prevent typhus or typhus. Immunization or administration of typhoid vaccine is included in the type of immunization recommended by the government. This is because cases of typhus are still common in Indonesia.
Typhoid or typhoid fever is an infectious disease caused by bacteria Salmonella typhi. The source of transmission of this disease comes from food and drinks that have been contaminated by these germs. In addition, typhoid fever is also more common in a less hygienic environment.
Typhoid fever can cause symptoms of fever, fatigue, headache, decreased appetite, and digestive disorders, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, and nausea and vomiting. If left untreated, typhoid fever can lead to serious complications, such as gastrointestinal bleeding, meningitis, pneumonia, delirium, and even death.
In Indonesia, the incidence of typhoid fever is still quite high with an estimate of at least 600 thousand cases every year. Therefore, it is important to take steps to prevent typhoid fever. The trick is to keep the environment clean and sanitary and get the typhoid vaccine.
Who is Recommended to Get the Typhoid Vaccine?
The Indonesian Pediatric Association (IDAI) recommends the typhoid vaccine to be given to children aged 2 years and repeated every 3 years until the child is 18 years old.
In addition to children, the typhoid vaccine is also intended for adults who are at risk of developing typhus, such as:
- People who live close to typhoid sufferers
- Medical personnel or laboratory workers who are often exposed to bacteria typhi
- Culinary workers, such as chefs, restaurant waiters, to street food vendors
Types of Typhoid Vaccine and Schedule of Administration
There are 2 types of typhoid vaccine that can be used to prevent typhoid fever, namely:
Typhoid vaccine injection
This vaccine uses germs Salmonella typhi which has been turned off, is then given by injection through a muscle. This type of vaccine is given to children aged over 2 years and adults with a dose of 1 injection every 3 years.
Oral typhoid vaccine
This vaccine is made from germs Salmonella typhi weakened life. This vaccine is available in capsule form to take by mouth and can be given to children over 6 years of age and adults.
Oral typhoid vaccine is not recommended for pregnant women, people with weak immune systems, and people taking antibiotics or chemotherapy drugs. Oral or injectable typhoid vaccines are also not recommended for use by people who have a history of allergies to these vaccines.
To determine the type of typhoid vaccine that is suitable for use, you are advised to consult a doctor first.
Some Side Effects of Typhoid Vaccine
Just like other vaccines, typhoid vaccine can also cause some side effects. Injectable typhoid vaccine can cause side effects in the form of pain at the injection site, fever, and muscle aches, while oral typhoid vaccine can cause side effects of stomach pain and nausea.
However, side effects are quite rare and are usually mild or subside within a few days. However, you need to go to the doctor immediately if the side effects that appear do not go away after a few days or there is an allergic reaction to the vaccine.
It should be noted that the typhoid vaccine cannot completely prevent typhus. Therefore, you are still recommended to take other preventive steps even though you have received immunization or the typhoid vaccine, for example by consuming healthy food and drinks that are hygienic and getting used to washing your hands.