Immunology is the study of the immune system or the body's immune system and a number of shape immune system disorders. This science is now experiencing a fairly rapid development because more and morehealth problems arising from disturbances inimmune system.
The development of the medical world has made immunology increasingly under the spotlight, especially in handling a number of health problems. Many researches related to immunology have been started, such as the use of immunotherapy, overcoming autoimmune diseases, as well as developing vaccines for various diseases, such as the Ebola vaccine.
The Role of Immunology bfor Human Health
An immunological study tries to find a number of diseases that are caused by a disorder or dysfunction of the immune system. This research also seeks to find the latest therapies and treatments to cure diseases related to immunity.
Several types of diseases related to immune system dysfunction that can be treated with an immunological approach are:
Allergies are reactions of the immune system to certain substances or objects that are considered dangerous. People who suffer from allergies will experience symptoms when in contact with allergy triggers (allergens). Symptoms of an allergic reaction can include sneezing, itchy skin rash, and shortness of breath.
Allergies can be prevented by avoiding the triggering substance. If there are complaints, allergies can be overcome by taking certain drugs. However, with the development of immunology, allergic reactions can be relieved by allergen immunotherapy.
Allergen immunotherapy is an allergy treatment that works by "training" the immune system to become more resistant to allergens. After being given immunotherapy, patients can experience a reduction in the frequency of allergic attacks, although some of them experience a relapse after therapy is stopped.
Asthma is a reaction of the immune system that causes inflammation of the airways when exposed to certain substances or substances. This inflammation causes the airways to narrow, which then triggers shortness of breath.
Asthma can be treated in various ways, including avoiding asthma triggers, using asthma medications when an asthma attack occurs, and undergoing immunotherapy.
Immunotherapy used for asthma works like allergy immunotherapy, in that it "trains" the immune system to become more immune to allergens. This immunotherapy will reduce complaints that arise when asthma occurs and prevent asthma worsening.
Cancer causes uncontrolled growth of cells in the body. This uncontrolled growth will damage the organs and systems in the body, thus threatening the life of the sufferer.
Cancer can be treated in various ways, and one of them is by utilizing immunology, namely cancer immunotherapy. Cancer immunotherapy is done to stimulate the immune system to fight cancer cells. Cancer immunotherapy is claimed to be able to slow down, stop the growth of cancer cells, and prevent the spread of cancer cells to other organs.
4. Autoimmune disease
Autoimmune diseases occur when the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy cells in the body. Some examples of autoimmune diseases are Crohn's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis, and multiple sclerosis.
Autoimmune diseases cannot be cured, and there is no truly effective immunotherapy option to treat them. However, autoimmune diseases can be controlled with certain medications, such as immunosuppressant drugs. Immunosuppressant drugs are able to suppress and reduce the number of immune cells that attack healthy cells.
To detect problems or disorders of the immune system, immunological examinations or immunological tests are needed. Some of the types of inspections carried out include:
An antibody test is done by taking a blood or saliva sample. In some cases, this test can determine the diagnosis of certain diseases. If the test for antibodies for a disease gives a positive result, it means that the person is currently or has had the disease. Antibody tests are generally performed to diagnose infectious and autoimmune diseases.
An antigen is a part of a virus or bacteria that can trigger an immune response. One of the common antigen tests is the examination of stool samples to determine the presence or absence of antigens produced by bacteria Heliobacter pylori cause of stomach ulcers.
Antigen tests can also be done using a blood sample, for example to detect antigens from the HIV virus. This antigen examination is one of the most frequently performed tests to diagnose HIV.
In Indonesia, immunology is a branch of internal medicine. Those of you who have disorders of the immune system can consult an internal medicine doctor to find out the cause and get the right treatment.