Artificial respiration is a method of administering oxygen to a person who is having difficulty breathing or stops breathing. Artificial respiration can be given manually or using a breathing apparatus.
Artificial respiration is part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) or cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which is a first aid technique in conditions of respiratory arrest or cardiac arrest. Both conditions can be caused by many things, such as a heart attack, serious injury, or drowning.
When breathing stops, the supply of oxygen in the blood also stops. Lack of oxygen supply can cause brain damage to death in just 8-10 minutes, so first aid must be done immediately.
The stages of cardiopulmonary resuscitation are: compressions, airways, and breathing (C-A-B). Compression or compression is the stage of pressing the chest to help the heart pump blood, followed by airways as an effort to open the respiratory tract, and breathing to give artificial respiration.
Various Artificial Breathing Techniques You Need to Know
Giving artificial respiration can be done manually or using a breathing apparatus. However, the use of the tool must be carried out by medical personnel. Here are some artificial respiration techniques you need to know:
1. Mouth to mouth
Mouth to mouth or giving mouth-to-mouth breaths is a common artificial respiration technique, but is no longer recommended.
Technique mouth to mouth Anyone can do it when they want to give first aid to a person who has stopped breathing while waiting for help to arrive.
If the mouth of the person who wants to be helped is injured, artificial respiration can be done from the mouth of the helper to the nose of the person who wants to be helped. The following is a sequence of steps for giving artificial respiration from mouth to mouth or nose:
- Move the person experiencing respiratory arrest to a safe place.
- Check the level of consciousness of the person you are trying to help by calling or tapping the chest or shoulder.
- If the victim is unconscious, not breathing, and no heartbeat can be heard or no pulse can be felt, immediately seek help from someone else to call an ambulance.
- While waiting, do help by pressing the victim's chest (compression) 30 times and giving artificial respiration 2 times.
- To open the airway, carefully lift the victim's chin so that the head is tilted up.
- Pinch the victim's nostrils, take a deep breath, and place your mouth over the victim's mouth. If there is a wound in the victim's mouth, cover his mouth, place your mouth over the victim's nose. Inhale, then notice if the victim's chest rises. If the chest does not rise, repeat by opening the airway and giving a second breath.
- Do this help until medical help arrives.
Before giving artificial respiration mouth to mouth, you must understand that this method carries the risk of transmitting diseases that can be spread through droplet or saliva, for example hepatitis A and COVID-19. If there are sores in the mouth, there can also be transmission of diseases through blood, such as hepatitis B or HIV.
In order to avoid this, it was created mouth to mouth resuscitation devices. The tool, which is generally made of silicone or PVC, serves to prevent direct contact with the victim's saliva.
2. AMs. bag or bag valve mask
Ambu bag is an air pump that is operated by pressing a bag filled with air. This device allows the patient to get a supply of oxygen when experiencing respiratory arrest. Use ambu bag must be performed by a medical professional.
So that this tool can work optimally, mask ambu bag should be positioned snugly against the patient's mouth and nose, so that there is no opening for air to escape. In addition, the patient's lying position must also be correct so that the airways are completely open.
3. Nasal cannula and oxygen mask
Nasal cannula or nasal cannula is an oxygen tube that is placed in the nose. This tube has two prongs that are inserted into the two nostrils to deliver oxygen.
Meanwhile, oxygen masks are special masks that are placed on the face and cover the patient's nose and mouth. This mask is connected to an oxygen tube to deliver oxygen to the patient.
Different from technique mouth to mouth and usage ambu bag used when the patient is unable to breathe spontaneously, nasal cannula or an oxygen mask is used while the patient is still breathing on his own.
Use nasal cannula or oxygen mask serves to make it easier for the patient to breathe, without causing interference when swallowing or speaking.
The tool is often used in patients with pneumonia, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sleep apnea, or respiratory distress in children and newborns.
Intubation is a technique of giving artificial respiration by a doctor to open the airway and provide oxygen. This step is done by inserting a special tube called endotracheal tube (ETT) into the patient's windpipe through his mouth.
Intubation is performed as an emergency procedure for patients who are unconscious and unable to breathe, to keep the airways open and prevent the patient from losing his life due to difficulty breathing. This procedure is generally performed in the emergency department (IGD) and ICU.
Although the artificial respiration technique above involves a lot of breathing apparatus and is generally carried out by medical personnel, it does not mean that you as a layman do not need to know about it.
You can still learn how to give artificial respiration with the method mouth to mouth as part of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).
This skill can be useful if one day someone around you faints accompanied by respiratory or cardiac arrest, so you can take CPR to save that person's life.
While performing rescue breaths and chest compressions, don't forget to keep calling the ambulance on 118 and the police on 112 for help.
Perform artificial respiration until the person being helped shows a response in the form of a pulse and can breathe on their own or until medical help arrives.