There are more than 400 types of anemia, each with a different cause and treatment. However, of the many types of anemia, there are five types of anemia that are more common.
Anemia is a condition in which the body lacks red blood cells, which are blood cells that function to deliver oxygen to all organs of the body. Lack of oxygen supply can interfere with the function of body organs.
Anemia can be recognized from several symptoms, such as often feeling weak, pale, headaches, chest palpitations, and difficulty concentrating.
Recognizing Kind-Mkind of anemia
Here are some of the most common types of anemia:
Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia. This condition occurs due to a lack of iron in the body, which is an important component in the formation of red blood cells.
A number of conditions can cause iron deficiency anemia, including a diet low in iron, pregnancy, chronic bleeding such as from wounds in the digestive tract or menstruation, impaired absorption of iron, side effects of drugs, to certain diseases, such as cancer, colitis, and myoma.
The condition is generally treated by taking iron supplements and following a high-iron diet. In addition, the causes of iron deficiency anemia also need to be addressed.
2. Vitamin B12 and Folate deficiency anemia
The body needs vitamin B12 and folate (vitamin B9) to make new red blood cells. Deficiency of one or both of these vitamins can cause vitamin B12 and folate deficiency anemia.
This type of anemia can occur due to a diet low in the content of these two vitamins. In addition, vitamin deficiency anemia can also occur because the body has difficulty or fails to absorb folate or vitamin B12. This condition is also called pernicious anemia.
Handling of anemia is generally in the form of changes in diet, as well as the provision of vitamin B12 and folic acid supplements to meet the body's needs for these two intakes.
3. Hemolytic anemia
Hemolytic anemia occurs when the breakdown of red blood cells occurs faster than the body's ability to replace them with new healthy blood cells.
The causes of hemolytic anemia are quite diverse, ranging from hereditary diseases, such as: thalassemiaand G6PD, autoimmune diseases, infections, side effects of drugs, to heart valve disorders.
Treatment will be tailored to the severity and cause of hemolytic anemia. The treatment given can be in the form of blood transfusions, administration of corticosteroid drugs, or surgery.
4. Aplastic anemia
Aplastic anemia is an anemia that needs to be watched out for because it has a high risk of threatening life. This condition occurs when the body cannot produce enough red blood cells due to a disorder in the bone marrow, which is the producer of blood cells in the body.
Aplastic anemia can be inherited from parents, but can also occur due to infection, side effects of drugs, autoimmune diseases, radiation therapy in cancer, and exposure to toxic substances.
This condition is generally treated with antibiotics and antivirals if there is an infection, blood transfusion, bone marrow transplant, or administration of immune-suppressing drugs.
5. Sickle cell anemia
Sickle cell anemia is caused by a genetic disorder that makes red blood cells look like sickles. These cells die too quickly that the body never has enough red blood cells.
In addition, the abnormal shape of these blood cells also makes them more rigid and sticky, which can block blood flow. Drugs can be given to prevent the condition from getting worse. However, the only way to treat this type of anemia is with a bone marrow transplant.
There are many kinds of anemia, and the causes can be very diverse. Some of these types of anemia can be prevented, but some cannot be prevented (anemia is passed from parents to children).
If you feel the symptoms of anemia, especially if there are factors that put you at risk for anemia, you should check with your doctor to be sure. The doctor will also identify the type of anemia you have and the cause, and provide appropriate treatment.