BTA examination is procedureto detect bacteriacauses of tuberculosis (TB).Bacteria TB can live in an acidic environment. so check toThese bacteria are known with the name of the examination acid-fast bacteria (BTA).
BTA examination is carried out by examining the presence of bacteria in various organs of the body, mainly through examination of sputum samples, considering that tuberculosis (TB) most often attacks the lungs. In addition to examining sputum samples, AFB examination can also use samples of blood, stool, urine, and bone marrow to see TB infection outside the lungs. This article will discuss AFB examination with a sputum sample. If the patient is unable to remove sputum from the respiratory tract, the patient may undergo a bronchoscopy procedure to collect a sputum sample.
Indications for AFB Examination
BTA examination is carried out on someone suspected of suffering from tuberculosis infection (TB or TB). Symptoms can include:
- Chronic cough
- Coughing up blood
- Chest pain
- Weight loss
- Sweating at night
BTA Check Warning
BTA examination by taking sputum samples directly does not cause harmful side effects. Side effects that can occur are mild, such as irritation of the throat, causing blood spots in the saliva or phlegm, as well as dizziness due to coughing that is too loud when taking phlegm.
For sputum collection by bronchoscopy method, although it is rare, there is a risk of causing:
- Allergic reaction to anesthetics or sleeping pills
- Irregular heartbeat
- Respiratory tract muscle tension
- Lung tissue tear
BTA Examination Preparation
Patients who will undergo sputum sampling, should not eat or drink first in the morning after waking up. After waking up, the patient is required to brush his teeth before taking a sputum sample. It should be remembered that when brushing their teeth, the patient should not use antiseptic mouthwash (mouthwash).
BTA Examination Sampling Procedure
To collect a sputum sample, the patient will be given a special container made of sterile plastic. To expel phlegm, the patient first inhales deeply and holds it for about five seconds. Once held, the breath is then exhaled slowly. Repeat the steps for inhaling, then coughing loudly until the phlegm rises to the mouth. The phlegm that is already in the mouth is then removed into a plastic container that has been provided and tightly closed.
Sputum collection is not only done once, but three times using the SPS method (anytime in the morning). The first sputum sample is taken when the doctor asks for a sputum sample. The second sputum was taken the next morning and the third sputum was taken when delivering the second sputum sample to the laboratory (lab). In addition to the SPS method, sputum can also be taken 3 days in a row every morning.
If the patient is unable to expel phlegm through this method, the patient is recommended to collect sputum through the bronchoscopy method. This method will use a special tool such as a tube that is equipped with a camera and is inserted through the mouth. The patient will first be given an anesthetic spray and sleeping pills to make them more relaxed during the bronchoscopy procedure. After being given an anesthetic and sleeping pills, the doctor will slowly insert the bronchoscope tube until it reaches the area where there is phlegm. The sputum is then aspirated using a bronchoscope tube and collected in a special container. The tube is then pulled out and the patient can resume normal activities. In some cases, the doctor will also remove respiratory tissue if needed.
Sputum samples will be analyzed by staining the sample with a special substance and microscopic observation. This examination is the fastest and easiest to do, compared to tests for other TB diseases, such as smear culture and genexpert.
After BTA Examination
After the acid-fast bacteria examination is completed in the laboratory, the doctor will convey the results to the patient and his immediate family. If the patient is proven to have pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), the patient needs to commit to taking TB drugs until the specified time limit, which can be 6 months or more. Patient adherence to taking medication is very necessary, to prevent germs from becoming immune to standard drugs to treat TB. Cure will be very difficult if the TB bacteria are resistant to standard drugs, and can be fatal to cause death.
Patients are encouraged to invite a family member when receiving the doctor's diagnosis. This family member will act as a medication taking supervisor (PMO), to help remind patients to take medication regularly.