Muscular dystrophy is a disorder of the muscles that causes muscles to weaken and lose their function. Some types of muscular dystrophy are dangerous and even life threatening, so it is important for you to know the types one by one.
Muscles allow the body to move and do many things. However, for some conditions, muscles can experience abnormalities that make their function impaired or even not function at all. This muscle disorder is also known as muscular dystrophy.
Muscular dystrophy can be experienced by anyone regardless of age. However, the symptoms are often seen since childhood. This condition is generally caused by genetic disorders or hereditary factors.
Types of Muscular Dystrophy
There are at least 9 types of muscular dystrophy that are common, namely:
1. Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a common muscle disorder that occurs in children aged 2-6 years. This muscle disorder usually affects boys. However, it is possible that girls can also experience it.
There are several symptoms of Duchenne muscular dystrophy that can be experienced by children, including:
- Often fall
- Difficult to jump and run
- Difficulty getting up from a sitting or lying position
- Disrupted growth and development
- Enlarged calf muscles
- Muscles feel sore and stiff
Respiratory and cardiac problems are common symptoms for people with end-stage Duchenne muscular dystrophy. If not treated properly, this disease can cause death when the sufferer enters their teens or early 20s.
Miotonic is also known as MMD or Steinert's disease. This disease generally affects adults aged 20-30 years, but can also occur in children. Miotonic is characterized by muscle stiffness and usually affects the facial and neck muscles first.
People with myotonic muscle disorders often have long, thin faces, drooping eyelids, and swan-like necks. In the long term, this disease can interfere with the working system of the heart, eyes, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and hormone-producing glands.
Abnormalities in the type of muscle limb-girdle It can be experienced by both men and women from adolescence to adulthood. This disease is characterized by a gradual loss of muscle mass and muscle weakness, starting from the hips and spreading to the shoulders, arms, and legs.
When experiencing limb-girdle, you will find it difficult to lift the front of the foot so that you often trip. Over time, this condition can make the sufferer paralyzed and unable to walk at all.
4. Becker muscular dystrophy
The symptoms of Becker's muscular dystrophy are similar to those of Duchenne's, but are much less severe and the disease progresses more slowly. This allows sufferers to live to the age of over 30 years.
Generally, the symptoms of Becker muscular dystrophy appear at the age of 11-25 years and are more common in boys. This disease will weaken the muscles in the arms and legs.
5. Congenital muscular dystrophy
Abnormalities in this one muscle often occur in newborns up to the age of 2 years. Congenital muscular dystrophy can be recognized by the following symptoms:
- Muscle weakness
- Poor motor control
- Inability to stand or sit alone
- Foot deformity
- Difficult to speak
- Impaired vision
- Difficult to swallow
- Difficult to breathe
This disease can also cause abnormalities in brain function and make sufferers often have seizures. However, if treated properly, infants or children with congenital muscular dystrophy can live to adulthood.
Facioscapulohumeral or Landouzy-Dejerine disease is a muscle disorder that affects the muscles of the upper arm, shoulder blade, and face. Symptoms of this muscle disorder begin to appear in adolescence and develop gradually to cause the sufferer to have difficulty swallowing, speaking, and chewing.
The impact caused by this disease varies according to its severity. However, about 50 percent of patients facioscapulohumeral still able to walk and live according to the average human age.
7. Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy
This is a rare type of muscular dystrophy and is more common in boys. Emery-Dreifuss can appear from childhood to adolescence.
This condition is characterized by symptoms of weakened and shrinking muscles, especially in the shoulders, upper arms, and lower legs. In some cases, muscle weakness can also spread to the chest and pelvic muscles.
Abnormalities in this one muscle cause the eye and throat muscles to weaken. Oculopharyngeal Usually experienced by men and women aged 40-60 years. This condition makes it difficult for sufferers to swallow, easy to choke, and even recurrent pneumonia.
9. Distal muscular dystrophy
Also known as distal myopathy, this condition can affect the ability of the muscles of the forearms, hands, calves, and feet, and even the respiratory system and heart muscles.
Distal muscular dystrophy can cause sufferers to lose motor skills and have difficulty walking. Abnormalities in this muscle often occur in men and women aged 40-60 years.
Management of Muscular Dystrophy
Before determining the treatment for muscular dystrophy, the doctor will perform a series of tests to confirm the diagnosis. There are several tests to diagnose muscular dystrophy, namely:
- blood test
- urine test
- Electromyography (EMG)
- muscle biopsy
- Examination with MRI
- Genetic test
However, so far there is no specific treatment that can cure abnormalities in the muscles caused by muscular dystrophy. However, there are several ways that can be done to prevent further complications and help people with muscle disorders to carry out activities as normal as possible.
Administration of corticosteroid drugs can increase muscle strength and slow the development of certain types of muscle disorders. In addition, drugs for the heart are also given to treat dystrophy that causes heart problems.
Various therapies can also be given to improve the patient's quality of life. This therapy can be in the form of aerobic exercise low impact, stretching exercises, physiotherapy, and speech therapy.
Some people with muscle disorders also need various supporting equipment to support their daily activities, such as: braces, wheelchair, or breathing apparatus such as a ventilator machine.
Surgical procedures can also be performed if muscular dystrophy is caused by certain diseases, such as cataracts, scoliosis, and heart problems.
In addition to taking drugs and undergoing various therapies and surgeries, people with muscular dystrophy are also advised to meet their daily nutritional needs by eating nutritious foods and always meeting their fluid needs.
If you or your child experience symptoms of muscle disorders as mentioned above, immediately consult a doctor to get the right treatment.