Understanding the Causes of Acute Nephritic Syndrome and How to Treat It

Nephritic syndrome is a collection of symptoms that occur as a result of kidney inflammation. This inflammation causes the kidneys to work less effectively. Therefore, if treated too late, nephritic syndrome can lead to kidney failure.

The symptoms of nephritic syndrome are generally based on glomerulonephritis, which is inflammation and swelling that occurs in the glomerulus, which is a filtering device for the kidneys. It can be caused by many conditions and can occur at any age.

The most common causes are infections, immune system disorders, and inflammation of the small blood vessels in the kidneys. All of these conditions can cause the filtering system in the kidneys to be disrupted, resulting in leakage of protein and red blood cells.

Nephritic syndrome can be acute or chronic. Chronic nephritic syndrome usually develops slowly and often goes undetected. However, it is usually acute nephritic syndrome that causes many disturbances and appears suddenly

Symptoms and Causes of Acute Nephritic Syndrome

Generally, the symptoms of acute nephritic syndrome are frequent urination, burning or burning sensation when urinating, pelvic pain, cloudy urine color, blood and pus appearing in the urine, and pain around the waist to the abdomen.

In addition, other symptoms that can arise include vomiting, fever, high blood pressure, and swelling of the face and legs.

Acute nephritic syndrome in both children and adults is most often caused by an immune response triggered by infection. In addition to infection, other diseases that can trigger acute nephritic syndrome are:

  • Hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is the destruction of red blood cells due to the effects of toxins that are released during a digestive tract infection
  • Henoch-Schonlein purpura, which is a disease that causes inflammation of the blood vessels and can affect joints, digestion, and the glomeruli of the kidneys
  • Hepatitis B or C
  • Lupus nephritis, which is a disorder of the immune system
  • Inflammation of the blood vessels of the kidneys that over time can cause organ damage (vasculitis)

In general, people who are more at risk of developing nephritic syndrome are people who have a family history of kidney disease, have lupus, and have had urinary tract surgery. In addition, if you take too many antibiotics or pain medication, you are also at risk of developing nephritic syndrome.

Treatment of Acute Nephritic Syndrome

Treatment of acute nephritic syndrome is tailored to the type of disease and underlying condition. For example, if a medication you are taking is causing kidney problems, your doctor may stop the medication and prescribe a medication instead.

Treatment of acute nephritic syndrome basically aims to reduce inflammation in the kidneys and control high blood pressure. The treatment process generally includes:

1. Rest

Your doctor may advise you to rest completely (bed rest) until the condition improves and recovers.

2. Drugs

Doctors will usually prescribe antibiotics to treat kidney infections. If your infection is very serious, you may need an antibiotic infusion and hospitalization. You may also be given medication to control your blood pressure and remove excess fluids from your body.

3. Supplements and diet

When your kidneys are not functioning optimally, the electrolyte balance in the body can be disturbed. Electrolytes, such as potassium, sodium, and magnesium, play a very important role in the body's metabolic processes. So, you may need an electrolyte supplement.

In addition, you may also be asked to adjust a special diet according to the electrolyte conditions in the body. This diet must be in accordance with the doctor's recommendations.

4. Blood Wash

If your kidney function is significantly impaired, you may need dialysis, which can help temporarily replace kidney function.

Nephritic syndrome is a collection of symptoms with a wide range of causes. Although most cases that occur are very clear symptoms, this condition can also occur in the long term without obvious symptoms.

Therefore, check your kidney health regularly, especially if you have previously had kidney-related diseases or have high blood pressure.

Immediately consult a doctor or go to the ER if you experience symptoms of acute nephritic syndrome so that appropriate treatment can be given for your condition.