Spots during pregnancy are a common complaint, especially in the early trimester of pregnancy. However, that does not mean its appearance can be ignored. In certain conditions, spots can be a sign of a possible more serious disorder, especially if it is accompanied by other abnormal symptoms.
Spots during pregnancy occur when you find red, pink, or brown blood droplets coming out of the vagina. Spots during pregnancy are quite common. About 20 percent of pregnant women experience it, especially in the first trimester of pregnancy. This condition is also more common in women who get pregnant through this method in vitro fertilization or IVF.
Spots during pregnancy are generally harmless and will subside in 3-5 days. Unfortunately, spotting during pregnancy can also indicate a more serious illness, including miscarriage, if accompanied by other signs such as heavy bleeding or severe pain.
Various Causes of Spots during Pregnancy
There are many factors that cause the appearance of spots during pregnancy. Therefore, pay attention to various possible diseases and conditions that can be characterized by the presence of spots during pregnancy.
- Implantation bleedingOne of the main causes of spotting during pregnancy is the attachment of the embryo to the uterine wall. Bleeding due to the attachment of the embryo to the uterine wall is called implantation bleeding. This condition usually occurs 6-12 days after fertilization.
- Infections of the vagina or cervixInfection in one part of the reproductive organs can be the cause of the appearance of spots during pregnancy. This infection occurs due to inflammation of the walls of the vagina or cervix, causing irritation. There are several factors that can trigger vaginal and cervical infections, such as sexually transmitted diseases (eg gonorrhea, herpes, and chlamydia) and non-sexual diseases (eg bacterial vaginosis).
- The appearance of uterine polypsUterine polyps can also cause spotting during pregnancy. Polyps that grow on the cervix are usually harmless and arise due to high levels of the hormone estrogen during pregnancy.
- Irritation of the cervixSpots during pregnancy can also occur due to irritation of the cervix. This irritation usually appears after you have had sex, underwent a pelvic or cervical examination, to an ultrasound through the vagina. However, you don't need to worry because it won't harm your baby.
- Placental abnormalitiesPlacental disorders, such as placenta previa, torn the placenta from the uterine wall, to the growth of the placenta that is too deep to the muscle layer of the uterus (placenta accreta) can also be the cause of spotting during pregnancy. However, these disorders usually cause symptoms in the second or third trimester, and can be detected early through routine prenatal check-ups and ultrasound pregnancy.
- Ectopic pregnancyEctopic pregnancy or pregnancy outside the womb is a condition that occurs when the fertilized egg does not attach to the uterus, but grows outside the uterus like a fallopian tube. In addition to spots during pregnancy, this condition is also accompanied by symptoms of severe pain in the lower abdomen or pelvis, to severe headaches and weakness. However, cases of ectopic pregnancy only occur in 2 out of 100 pregnancies.
- Molar pregnancy or wine pregnancyAnother cause of the appearance of spots during pregnancy is a molar pregnancy or pregnancy wine. This condition occurs when the fertilized egg does not develop properly. As a result, the gestational sac is formed, but the fetus does not develop in it.
To reduce the risk of spots appearing during pregnancy, you can do the following:
- Get enough rest, especially naps.
- Limit strenuous physical activity.
- Adequate your fluid intake.
- Raise your legs when sitting or lying down.
- Avoid lifting weights more than 4.5 kilograms.
Women who experience spotting during pregnancy without any other signs are less likely to experience any problems and can still have a normal delivery. But it's a good idea to check yourself and be aware if the spots during pregnancy have turned into bleeding.
Immediately consult a gynecologist if spotting during pregnancy is accompanied by symptoms such as dizziness or fainting, high fever, vaginal discharge with uterine tissue, severe cramping or pain in the lower abdomen, and severe bleeding with or without pain. In some cases, spotting during pregnancy in the first trimester will end in miscarriage.