Dysplasia is the abnormal development of cells or tissues, but not necessarily cancer. Dysplasia can also be interpreted as a stage of cell development that nature between healthy cells and cancer cells. Dysplapsia is divided into several types with different accompanying symptoms.
Dysplastic abnormal cells have more numbers than healthy cells. Cell growth is also very fast, irregular, and can occur in any part of the body. If not treated properly, dysplasia can continue to develop and become cancer. Therefore, dysplasia is also known as a precancerous condition.
In general, dysplasia is divided into 2 types, namely mild dysplasia (low grade) and severe dysplasia (high-grade). In mild dysplasia, cell growth is slow and the risk of abnormal cells turning into cancer is also small. Whereas in severe dysplasia, abnormal cell growth is very fast and the risk of turning into cancer.
Dysplasia by Location of Growth
Based on the location of growth, the type of dysplasia is also very diverse. The most common include:
1. Cervical dysplasia
Cervical dysplasia occurs when abnormal cells grow around the cervix or cervix. This condition rarely causes symptoms and is generally only discovered when doing a routine Pap smear.
Cervical dysplasia caused by infection human papillomavirus (HPV) which is transmitted through sexual contact. Women under 30 years of age are more at risk of developing this condition.
In addition, the risk for cervical dysplasia can also increase if you have underage sex, change partners frequently, and have unprotected sex.
2. Fibrous dysplasia
Fibrous dysplasia is a bone disorder caused by the abnormal growth of scar tissue in the bone. The cause is not known for sure, but genetic disorders that are not inherited and certain gene mutations are thought to be the cause of fibrous dysplasia.
Fibrous dysplasia commonly occurs in the skull, pelvis, ribs, thighs, shins, and upper arm bones. This condition is characterized by several symptoms, such as:
- Bone pain
- Bone deformity
- Leg bones curved or bent
- Bones weaken and break easily, especially the bones of the arms and legs
3. Digestive tract dysplasia
Gastrointestinal dysplasia is very dangerous because of the high risk of turning into cancer. Dysplasia in the digestive tract can affect several organs, including the stomach, intestines, or liver.
This condition generally causes no symptoms. However, there are several factors that can increase the risk of gastrointestinal dysplasia, namely:
- Inflammation of the stomach in the long term
- Bacterial infection Helicobacter pylori
- Changes in the shape of cells in the stomach
4. Myelodysplastic syndrome
This condition causes impaired blood cell formation. Myelodysplasia syndrome can affect anyone, but the elderly aged 70-80 years are more at risk for experiencing it.
A person affected by myelodysplasia syndrome is at risk for a number of complications, one of which is leukemia or blood cancer. This syndrome is usually characterized by several symptoms, such as:
- Shortness of breath and body feels weak
- Red spots appear under the skin
- Frequent infections due to low white blood cells
- The body looks pale due to a lack of red blood cells (anaemia)
- Bruises on the body and easy bleeding due to low platelets.
5. Fibromuscular dysplasia
Fibromuscular dysplasia is a condition that causes narrowing or widening of the arteries, especially the arteries leading to the kidneys and brain. Symptoms of fibromuscular dysplasia include high blood pressure, tissue damage in the kidneys, and chronic kidney failure.
Fibromuscular dysplasia tends to be mild and has a low risk of developing into cancer. Even so, this condition can lead to a number of complications, such as aortic dissection, or stroke.
You are advised to immediately consult a doctor if you feel the symptoms of dysplasia. That way, doctors can detect abnormal cell growth, as well as provide appropriate treatment. Early detection of dysplasia will help you avoid the risk of cancer.