Causes of Infectious Diseases, Spread and Prevention Tips

Various infectious diseases are still one of the main health problems worldwide, including: in Indonesia. Transmission of this disease is also very easy to happen. Therefore, preventive measures need to be taken so that the spread of infectious diseases can be stopped.

Infectious diseases can be caused by various microorganisms, such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Each infectious disease has its own symptoms and different treatments, depending on the cause.

To diagnose an infectious disease, the doctor can perform an examination consisting of a physical examination and supporting tests, such as blood and urine tests and a CRP examination.

A person's risk for developing infectious diseases can increase if he has certain medical conditions, such as HIV infection and white blood cell deficiency, such as leukopenia and neutropenia.

Each infectious disease also has its own incubation period. The incubation period is the time lag from when microorganisms enter a person's body until the person shows symptoms of an infectious disease. Infectious diseases have an incubation period of several days, months, and years.

Some Infectious Diseases Based on the Cause

The following are some types of infectious diseases due to infections that are commonly found in Indonesia, based on their causes:

viral infection

Viruses are the most common cause of infection. Several viral infections that are still commonly found in Indonesia include ARI, influenza, smallpox, measles, hepatitis, dengue fever, HIV/AIDS, and gastroenteritis.

Meanwhile, viral infections that are less common include bird flu, Singapore flu, chikungunya, and SARS.

Bacterial infection

Bacterial infections are also infectious diseases that are still commonly found in Indonesia. Some examples of bacterial infectious diseases in question are:

  • Typhoid fever
  • Tuberculosis (TB)
  • Pneumonia
  • Meningitis
  • Urinary tract infection
  • Diphtheria
  • Whooping cough (pertussis)
  • Sepsis

fungal infection

Mushrooms are easy to thrive in tropical and warm climates with high humidity, one of which is Indonesia. This makes fungal infections quite common in Indonesia.

Some examples of fungal diseases that often occur are:thlete's foot or fungal foot infections, fungal infections of the skin, nails, and vaginal yeast infections, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis, candidiasis, and aspergillosis. Some types of fungi can also cause meningitis and pneumonia.

Parasitic infection

Parasitic infections can be caused by various types of living things, such as worms and amoebae. Examples of these parasitic diseases are intestinal worms, malaria, giardiasis, amebiasis, and toxoplasmosis.

Mechanism of Spread of Infectious Diseases

Infectious diseases can be transmitted from one person to another directly or indirectly. Here is the explanation:

Direct transmission

There are 3 ways to spread infectious diseases directly, namely:

  1. From people with infectious diseases to other people

    Transmission can also occur through blood, for example from blood transfusions or sharing needles with other people.

    In addition to blood, transmission through body fluids can also occur, for example through sexual intercourse with people with infectious diseases. Transmission of infection through sexual contact is often the cause of sexually transmitted infections.

  1. From mother to baby

    A mother who suffers from an infectious disease during pregnancy is at high risk for transmitting the disease she is suffering to to the fetus in the womb. In addition, transmission of infectious diseases from mother to baby can also occur through childbirth or during breastfeeding.

  1. animalto humans

    Animals that carry this infectious disease can be wild animals or pets that are not well maintained. Examples of infectious diseases that are transmitted through animals are toxoplasmosis, bubonic plague, leptospirosis, and rabies.

Indirect transmission

There are 3 ways of spreading infectious diseases indirectly, namely:

  1. Contaminated objects

    Some types of germs can live on certain objects, such as faucets, doorknobs, and even WL. Transmission can occur when you touch objects that have been contaminated with germs or objects belonging to people with infectious diseases.

    Infectious microorganisms can also be spread by sharing personal items, such as towels, toothbrushes and razors, with other people.

  1. Contaminated food and drink

    Examples of infectious diseases that occur through this method are diarrhea, food poisoning, anthrax, swine flu, and bird flu.

  1. Insect bites

    Many infectious diseases are transmitted through insect bites, such as mosquito bites that carry viruses or parasites that cause infection. Examples of infectious diseases caused by insect bites are dengue fever, malaria, filariasis (elephantiasis), chikungunya, Lyme disease and Zika virus infection.

Tips for Preventing Infectious Diseases

Severe viral or bacterial infection can cause reduced white blood cells or leukopenia. Therefore, to reduce the risk and prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases, it is important to take the following infectious disease prevention steps:

  • Get into the habit of washing hands with soap and water, especially after urinating and defecating, taking out the trash, before cooking, and before eating. This is also one of the PHBS steps.
  • Cooking food or drink until cooked before consumption.
  • Use a mask when you are outside or when you are sick.
  • Do not share personal hygiene utensils, such as toothbrushes, razors, towels, and cutlery, with others.
  • Complete immunization according to the schedule recommended by the doctor or when traveling to areas with endemic diseases.
  • Have safe sex, namely using condoms when having sex and not changing sexual partners.
  • Keep the environment clean. One of them is by not littering.

Armed with an understanding of the causes of infectious diseases, how they are spread, and how to prevent them, it is hoped that you will not catch infectious diseases and not transmit infectious diseases to others.

If there are symptoms of infection, such as fever, cough, runny nose, shortness of breath, or diarrhea, you should immediately consult a doctor so that appropriate treatment can be given.