Endemic disease is a disease that always exists in a certain area or population group. Each region may have different endemic diseases. One of the reasons this can happen is the climate differences in each region.
Indonesia as a tropical country is faced with several endemic diseases, such as dengue fever, malaria, and tuberculosis. Endemic diseases still have a wide impact, especially in people in developing countries.
This is associated with uneven development, population density that is difficult to control, economic difficulties, as well as prevention and treatment measures that are difficult to reach.
Endemic Diseases in Indonesia
Some endemic diseases in Indonesia include:
One of the endemic diseases in Indonesia with the highest cases is dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF). A disease caused by the dengue virus and transmitted through mosquito bites Aedes aegypti this almost always becomes endemic when Indonesia enters the rainy season.
This disease that can affect anyone is characterized by several symptoms, ranging from high fever, severe headache, pain behind the eyes, joint and muscle pain, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, and skin rashes. These symptoms usually appear 6 days after infection and last for 10 days.
Malaria is a disease that is transmitted through mosquito bites Anopheles pregnant female plasmodium, the parasite that causes malaria.
One of the endemic diseases that are often found in a country with a tropical climate like Indonesia, it can attack all age groups, including men and women. Symptoms complained of when infected with malaria can include fever, chills, headache, nausea or vomiting.
It is an endemic disease that also occurs in several other countries, such as China. This disease is caused by infection with the hepatitis virus. Hepatitis is divided into 5 types, namely hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E. Indonesia is a country with the second largest number of hepatitis B sufferers in Southeast Asia after Myanmar.
Leprosy or also known as leprosy is a disease caused by infection Mycobacterium leprae. Leprosy attacks several parts of the body, such as nerves and skin. Leprosy endemic areas in Indonesia include East Java and Papua.
Symptoms caused by leprosy include white patches, numbness on the skin and a tingling feeling to abnormalities in the muscles of the hands or feet. Globally, Indonesia is one of three countries with high cases of leprosy.
Tuberculosis is a disease caused by bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Tuberculosis can attack the lungs, lymph nodes, and bones. Stingray tuberculosis is characterized by several symptoms, namely a prolonged cough, chest pain, fatigue, night sweats, and weight loss.
Data released in 2016 states that there are 5 countries with the highest tuberculosis cases, and Indonesia is one of them.
Filariasis or known as elephantiasis is an infectious disease caused by filarial worm infection which is transmitted through mosquito bites. The filariasis endemic areas in Indonesia include Papua, East Nusa Tenggara, and Aceh.
Filariasis can affect everyone regardless of age and gender. Filariasis can cause lifelong disability and discomfort due to swelling in various parts of the body. Lack of education about this condition can cause sufferers to be ostracized by the surrounding environment.
Leptospirosis is one of the endemic diseases in Indonesia caused by bacteria Leptospira interrogans which is spread through animal urine. Leptospirosis is more common in people who have direct contact with animals, such as farmers and workers at abattoirs.
In addition, people who live in densely populated areas with poor sanitation also tend to be more susceptible to this disease. Leptospirosis is characterized by several symptoms, ranging from high fever, headache, muscle aches, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhea to the appearance of rashes on the skin.
How to Prevent Endemic Diseases
Efforts to eradicate endemic diseases must include the prevention of the most basic disease-causing factors. Therefore, it takes quite a long time and a wide scope to do it.
However, you can still protect yourself from these diseases. This is also one of the first steps to help eradicate endemic diseases. Here's how:
By maintaining your immune system, you are less susceptible to disease, including endemic diseases that exist where you are.
Increase endurance by eating nutritious foods, getting enough rest, maintaining an ideal body weight, exercising regularly, quitting smoking, managing stress well, and washing hands frequently with soap.
Keep the environment clean
Keep your home environment clean to avoid disease-causing germs and disease-carrying animals. The trick is to clean every room in the house regularly, especially the rooms that are used most often, such as bedrooms, kitchens, and bathrooms.
In addition, also clean the yard of the house. If there is a container that can hold stagnant water and has the potential to become a mosquito breeding ground, clean it so that mosquitoes do not lay eggs and breed there. It is also important to do to break the life cycle of disease-carrying mosquitoes.
Avoid contact with sick people
As much as possible avoid contact with sick people. One way is by not sharing food or drinks from the same container with people who are sick.
In addition to the methods above, the government has also taken various steps to prevent the spread of endemic diseases in Indonesia by providing counseling and even providing preventive medicine for certain diseases.
In the case of filariasis, for example, the government carries out a filariasis elimination program by providing mass prevention drugs in various filariasis endemic areas.
Efforts to overcome endemic diseases in Indonesia cannot only focus on treatment. Now, the eradication of this disease is more emphasized on efforts to increase the promotion of healthy lifestyles and provide education related to the prevention of infectious diseases.
This is mostly done through various outreach programs for health centers and integrated service posts, so that people can be more aware of various causes of endemic diseases. The support of all members of the community is certainly needed to prevent and overcome endemic diseases that occur.