Minor Head Injury - Symptoms, causes and treat

Minor head injury is the most common type of head injury and the symptoms are mild. This injury occurs when a person experiences a direct and sudden impact on the head. In the vast majority of cases, minor head injuries result from falls.

Most people with minor head injuries recover without needing treatment. However, an examination by a doctor is still needed to prevent worsening of symptoms and the emergence of complications.

Causes and Risk Factors for Minor Head Injury

The brain is an organ made up of soft tissue. This vital organ is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid which serves to protect the brain when a blow to the head occurs.

Minor head injuries occur when the brain hits the skull bone. As a result, brain function becomes temporarily impaired.

There are several conditions or activities that are at risk of causing minor head injuries, namely:

  • Falls, especially in children and the elderly
  • Participate in sports that involve impact, such as football, hockey and boxing, especially when not wearing protective gear
  • Having an accident, for example while cycling or driving a motor vehicle
  • Experiencing physical violence, such as a hit or blow to the head
  • Have a history of impact or injury to the head

Symptom InjuryLight Head

Minor head injuries can cause a variety of symptoms, both physically, sensory and mental systems. Some symptoms can appear immediately after the incident, while other symptoms can appear days or weeks later.

The following are physical symptoms that can result from a minor head injury:

  • Hard to sleep
  • Easily tired and sleepy
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Lost balance
  • Dizziness and headache
  • Speech disorders
  • Dazed and confused, but not losing consciousness
  • Loss of consciousness for a few seconds or minutes

In the sensory system, the symptoms can be:

  • Bad taste in mouth
  • Sensitive to light and sound
  • Changes in the ability of the sense of smell
  • Ears ringing
  • Blurred vision

While the mental symptoms that can arise from a minor head injury include:

  • Changeable mood
  • Easy to feel anxious and depressed
  • Impaired memory and concentration

When to go to the doctor

Check with your doctor if you or your child has a head injury, even if you don't have any symptoms.

Immediately see a doctor if the following complaints appear, especially if they persist and get worse:

  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Dazed or confused
  • Ears ringing
  • Dizziness and headache
  • Bleeding from the nose or ears
  • Loss of consciousness for more than 30 minutes
  • Changes in behavior and speech
  • Changes in mental and body movement coordination
  • Changes in the eye, such as enlarged or unequal pupil size between the right and left
  • Visual disturbance
  • Weak limbs
  • Seizures

Diagnosis InjuryLight Head

The doctor will ask about the symptoms you are experiencing, and whether there is a history of a blow to the head. After that, the doctor will perform a physical examination to determine the severity of the head injury suffered by the patient.

The physical examination was carried out using Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS). The GCS will measure the patient's ability to move the eyes and legs, as well as the patient's response to following the instructions given.

In the GCS, the patient's ability will be rated from 3 to 15. The higher the score, the lighter the severity. Minor head injuries are on a scale of 13 to 15.

In addition to GCS, doctors may also perform other examinations, such as:

  • Neurological examination, to determine the function of vision, hearing, and balance
  • A scan of the head with a CT scan or MRI, to see how severe the injury is

Treatment Injury Light Head

Minor head injuries usually do not require special treatment. The doctor will advise the patient to rest and prescribe paracetamol to relieve headaches.

Doctors will also advise patients not to do activities that can worsen symptoms, namely activities that require a lot of movement or high concentration.

Even so, patients are not advised to rest completely. It's a good idea to do light activity every now and then so you can know if your symptoms get worse or other symptoms appear. If there is, consult a doctor to get treatment immediately.

To help the recovery process, there are several things that must be considered, namely:

  • Do not take aspirin and ibuprofen.
  • Do not take sleeping pills or sedatives, such as alprazolam, unless prescribed by a doctor.
  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages.
  • Do not drive, operate machinery or engage in contact sports until you have fully recovered.
  • Ask your doctor when you will be allowed to return to school, exercise, or work.

Complications Injury Light Head

Minor head injuries can lead to a number of complications, including:

  • Post-traumatic headache, can appear up to 7 days after injury
  • Post-traumatic vertigo, can appear for days, weeks, even months after the injury
  • Post-concussion syndrome, which includes headaches, dizziness, and difficulty thinking that persists for up to 3 weeks after the injury

Prevention Injury Light Head

The following are some preventative steps that can be taken to avoid minor head injuries:

  • Use personal protective equipment when doing activities or sports that are at risk of collisions
  • Wearing a seat belt when driving a car and wearing a helmet when riding a motorcycle
  • Ensure safety at home, such as making handrails on stairs and installing non-slip mats so that the bathroom floor is not slippery
  • Exercise regularly to train balance and strengthen leg muscles