Excessive nausea and vomiting during pregnancy is one of the complaints that should be checked by a doctor. When experiencing it, pregnant women can become weak and difficult to eat. If left untreated, this condition, known as hyperemesis gravidarum, can be dangerous for both the mother and the fetus.
Excessive vomiting during pregnancy usually appears at 4-6 weeks of gestation and reaches its peak at 9-13 weeks of gestation.
Generally, normal nausea and vomiting will subside after the first trimester of pregnancy, but excessive vomiting caused by hyperemesis gravidarum can continue until the 20th week, even throughout pregnancy.
In addition to interfering with daily activities, this condition can also lead to dehydration and weight loss, because pregnant women cannot eat and drink.
Causes of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
The cause of hyperemesis gravidarum is not clearly known. However, this condition is often associated with hormonal changes experienced by pregnant women. Pregnancy hormones that are known to have an effect on the appearance of excessive vomiting are: human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and estrogen.
Apart from hormonal factors, excessive vomiting during pregnancy is also usually more at risk for women with the following conditions:
- First time pregnant.
- Pregnant with a girl or pregnant with twins.
- Have had hyperemesis gravidarum in a previous pregnancy.
- Have a mother or sister who has hyperemesis gravidarum.
- Being overweight or obese during pregnancy.
- Pregnant wine.
- Having certain diseases, such as thyroid disease, stomach ulcers, acid reflux disease, and migraines.
Signs and Symptoms of Hyperemesis Gravidarum
A pregnant woman is said to have hyperemesis gravidarum if she feels some of the following signs and symptoms:
- Nausea constantly
- Vomiting more than 3-4 times a day
- Losing weight due to vomiting too often
- Dehydrated due to frequent vomiting
- Rarely urinate
- Decreased blood pressure
- Pale and cold skin
If nausea and vomiting does not cause some of the symptoms above, chances are it is a normal symptom of nausea and vomiting experienced by pregnant women (morning sickness).
However, if the nausea and vomiting are felt so severe that some of the other symptoms above appear, then pregnant women should immediately consult a doctor for further treatment.
How to overcomeHyperemesis Gravidarum
If not treated immediately, hyperemesis gravidarum can increase the risk of babies being born prematurely or having low birth weight (LBW). Babies born prematurely or with low birth weight are prone to various health problems.
Meanwhile, in pregnant women, excessive vomiting can cause severe dehydration, malnutrition, and shock which can be fatal. In treating hyperemesis gravidarum, the doctor will adjust the treatment according to the severity of the symptoms and the presence or absence of complications.
Meanwhile, to relieve symptoms, pregnant women can do the following ways:
- Eat and drink in small portions but often.
- Consume mint candy or ginger water.
- Take a pregnancy supplement that contains vitamin B6 or B1 at the dose recommended by your doctor.
- Enough rest.
- Consuming electrolyte drinks or ionic drinks to treat dehydration.
- Press the point in the middle of the wrist, three fingers from the wrist crease and between the two tendons. Press the point firmly for three minutes.
- Get a massage.
If excessive vomiting during pregnancy makes it difficult for pregnant women to eat or drink, the doctor will recommend giving nutrition and fluids through an IV. Your doctor may also give you medicine to treat nausea and vomiting. This drug can be given orally (oral), by injection, or through an IV.
If pregnant women experience excessive vomiting during pregnancy, check with a gynecologist or hospital to get the right treatment as early as possible. This is important to do to prevent complications in pregnant women and fetuses, such as dehydration and malnutrition.